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Symptoms of long-COVID19 might linger for several weeks or months after the initial infection by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Symptoms are headache, problems with memory and concentration, anxiety, extreme fatigue, chest pain or tightness, gastrointestinal symptoms and difficulty sleeping. In addition, abnormal immune response to viral infection is reported in patients with long-COVID. A dysfunctional brainstem might explain the neuropsychiatric, and autonomic symptoms as a consequence of abnormal immune response.
Segmentation of the Nucleus Tractus Solitarius (solitary complex)–Area Postrema (NTS-AP). NTS-AP plays an impotant role in neuro-immune regulatory loops and autonomic reflexes.
3D Exploration of the Brainstem in 50-Micron Resolution MRI
Richard Jarrett Rushmore, Peter Wilson-Braun, George Papadimitriou, Isaac Ng, Yogesh Rathi, Fan Zhang , Lauren Jean O’Donnell, Marek Kubicki, Sylvain Bouix, Edward Yeterian , Jean-Jacques Lemaire, Evan Calabrese, G Allan Johnson, Ron Kikini, Nikos Makris
Frontiers in Neuroanatomy, 2020
Larger gray matter volumes in neuropsychiatric long-COVID syndrome Bianca Besteher, Marlene Machnik, Marie Troll, Antonia Toepffer, Ani Zerekidze, Tonia Rocktäschel, Carina Heller, Zora Kikinis, Stefan Brodoehl, Kathrin Finke, Philipp A. Reuken, Nils Opel, Andreas Stallmach, Christian Gaser and Martin Walter Psychiatry Res. 2022